Flip chip is an interconnection technology where a face-down (or “flipped”) electronic component is both mechanically and electrically connected to its substrate in a one-step process by means of bumps or solder joints.
This technology offers major improvements over the standard wire bonding technique, especially in terms of number of Inputs/Outputs (I/O), components density, and electrical performances at high frequency. Because of this, flip chip packaging is getting more and more popular in the microelectronics industry.
For flip chip, the continuous trend for a higher number of I/O and finer pitch translates into a higher number of smaller bumps. This makes reliability of flip chip assemblies more and more difficult to achieve both during their manufacturing process and at the component lifetime scale. With reliability comes another issue: inspection of interconnections as bumps are hidden below the die, preventing visual inspection as for wire bonding. As a consequence, identification of defaults and failure modes in flip chip assemblies requires Non-Destructive Control (NDC) techniques able to detect very small features such as cracks in a bump and delamination at the bump/chip or bump/substrate interface.
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